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Uploaded2021/2/22 19:14:28     Hits    Sourcebaudcom


PON is a passive optical network, which refers to the ODN (optical distribution network) between the OLT (optical line terminal) and the ONU (optical network unit) without any active equipment and only uses optical fibers and passive components. PON mainly adopts a point-to-multipoint network structure and is the main technology to realize FTTB/FTTH.

PON technology contains a lot of content, and it is constantly updated. The development of xPON technology from APON, BPON, to later GPON and EPON. These are technologies with different transmission modes and transmission standards developed in different periods.

What is APON?

At the end of the 1990s, the ITU (International Telecommunication Union) first proposed APON, which uses Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) for packet communication. APON utilizes the centralized and statistical multiplexing of ATM, combined with the sharing effect of passive splitters on fiber and optical line terminals, so that the cost is 20-40% lower than the traditional PDH/SDH access system based on circuit switching.

What is BPON?

With the rapid development of Ethernet technology, APON is basically no longer used. At this time, the concept of Broadband Passive Optical Network (BPON) was proposed. BPON is an enhancement after the APON standard. It was also called APON at first, and then changed to BPON for differentiation. BPON is based on the ATM protocol, with uplink and downlink speeds of 155 and 622 Mbps, respectively, plus dynamic bandwidth allocation, protection and other functions. It can provide services such as Ethernet access, video transmission, and high-speed leased lines.

What is EPON?

Due to the high cost of BPON deployment, it was subsequently replaced by EPON, which is more cost-effective and faster. EPON is an Ethernet passive optical network. EPON is based on Ethernet PON technology, which combines the advantages of PON technology and Ethernet technology, adopts point-to-multipoint structure, passive optical fiber transmission, and provides multiple services on Ethernet. Because EPON deployment is economical and efficient, it is the most effective communication method to realize "three networks in one" and "last mile".

What is GPON?

GPON is a gigabit passive optical network or called a gigabit passive optical network. EPON and GPON adopt different standards. It can be said that GPON is a more advanced point, which can transmit larger bandwidth and can bring more users than EPON. Although GPON has advantages in high speed and multiple services compared to EPON, the technology of GPON is more complicated and the cost is higher than that of EPON. Therefore, at present, EPON and GPON are the technologies with more PON broadband access applications. Which technology to choose depends more on the cost of optical fiber access and service requirements. GPON will be more suitable for customers with high bandwidth, multiple services, QoS and security requirements, and ATM technology as the backbone. The future development is higher bandwidth. For example, 10 G EPON/10 G GPON has been developed in EPON/GPON technology, and the bandwidth will be even higher.

As the demand for capacity of network providers continues to increase, the versatility of the access network must also be expanded to meet this growing demand. The advantage of PON technology is that it can reduce the occupation of backbone optical fiber resources and save investment; the network structure is flexible and the expansion capability is strong; the failure rate of passive optical devices is low, and it is not easily interfered by the external environment; and the business support capability is strong.

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